From the Barons Castle to the Super Secret Nazi Missile Station
In the early hours of June 20, 1944, a V-2 rocket with a registration number MW18014 soared into the air with an inaudible noise from one of the launch pads at Beamentay, a secret test site on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Powered by a 12.5-meter-high liquid propeller, the silver-winged “curl” quickly disappeared from the eyes of technicians watching the test launch, and then only instruments could be used to follow the trajectory of the ballistic device, which further increased the speed to five times the speed of sound.
Beyond the magical boundaries of V-2 space, breaking all previous test records,
The Carmen line at an altitude of 100 kilometers, and landed in the universe. (The Gorman line is the boundary line calculated by the world-famous Hungarian scientist Tedor Gorman, where there is not enough buoyancy to fly, so for the plane to orbit the Earth, it must reach its first cosmic speed.)
It was a rocket, eventually reaching an altitude of 176 kilometers
It was the first man-made device to reach space in history.
This amazing technological achievement was largely due to Werner von Braun, the 32-year-old sole leader of the missile test division under SS supervision. Von Braun was a descendant of an old starving German aristocratic family who was born on March 23, 1912, the second child of Baron Magnus von Braun, then in Verschits, East Germany (now Virgisk, Poland).
As a result of Professor Hermann Oberth’s 1925 book Die Rocket Ju den Planettenrumen (Rocket in Space), he became interested in the possibility of space travel at the age of 13. As a student at the Technical University of Berlin, he joined the German Space Society, where he became an assistant to his exemplary Professor Oberth. Hermann Oberth’s pioneering work almost half a century later laid the foundation for the construction of space-operated fluid-powered missiles.
Blessed with outstanding skills, Van Brown received his doctorate in physics in 1934 from Humboldt University in Berlin.
By the time he received his doctorate, Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party was already in power in Germany.
The Nazis initially realized the military importance of rocket propulsion, so the public banned missile tests, which created a unique monopoly for the military.
A secret base for military rocket tests was established in 1937 at Beamentay on the shores of the Baltic Sea; And the talented young architect, Wernhar von Braun, was appointed head of the experimental laboratory.
The deadly weapon fell silently and invisibly on its target
Werner von Braun, who always dreamed of space travel and the missiles that make it possible, after hard work and many failed attempts, by 1942 developed the first liquid-powered ballistic missile in history, which was already suited to space. To achieve. Adolf Hitler was certainly not interested in lunar travel, but was likely to destroy enemies, so it was assumed that Van Fran’s invention should be used for war purposes.
Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s influential propaganda minister, called the A-4 ballistic missile a “weapon of retaliation” (Verkheldungschoff).
Henceforth it refers to V-2
Next to the first robotic aircraft in world history, the V-1 wing bomb and other Nazi “miracle weapon”. The V-2 ballistic missile launched its first successful test launch site in October 1942, but became a weapon imaginable by the Nazi leadership in order to create large masses, many problems still to be solved.
Due to the importance of the project, the test site SS was built on the initiative of Imperial President Heinrich Himmler’s “Reichsfr”. Placed under the rule.
The missiles were built by Himmler with prisoners from the Mittalbau-Dora concentration camp, which was established in 1943.
In the concentration camps, slave laborers made Hitler’s miracle weapon inhumanely, and many prisoners were killed by the inhumane behavior and cruelty of the SS guards.
S.S. in committing crimes against forced labor. Major Wenger von Fran’s view of responsibility remained controversial even after the war;
Von Braun continues to deny knowing of these atrocities,
However, many of the survivors denied this. In fact, Werner von Brown has never been prosecuted as a war criminal. The V-2 can only be used from September 1944, primarily against UK targets.
The destructive warship fitted to the nose of the rocket contained 900 kg of TNT,
And the V-2 hit its target at five times the speed of sound,
It, unlike the V-1 wing bomb, does not approach or hear its approach. By March 1945, a total of about 4,000 V-2s had been eliminated, but contrary to Hitler’s expectations, the V-2 was used too late to have any meaningful effect on the end of the war.
The psychological impact, however, was not underestimated in any way because the Allies were deeply shocked by the fact that the Germans were capable of producing such a destructive weapon.
The Cold War space race put the Nazi past in brackets
After the surrender of Nazi Germany on May 8, 1945, a sharp race developed between the Americans and the Soviets to obtain the results of secret German military research. Part of this was a “brain hunt” operation to “gather” German scientists and engineers working on military advances.
Knowing the inevitable defeat from the summer of 1944, Werner von Braun and his fellow scientists did not want to fall into the hands of the Soviets in any way, so he voluntarily surrendered to the Americans. The Americans won the race for the V-2 because they had in their hands the most valuable “trophy” of the missile development program, the chief designer Werner von Brown and his most direct staff.
(The Soviets were able to retrieve some of the remaining V-2s.) American captive Van Braun and his allies were taken to the United States,
U.S. The military first used their expertise to launch a military missile program.
In 1952, Eisenhower was in the White House after President Harry Truman. Dwight D. Eisenhower, European Commander of the Anglo-Saxon Allied Forces during World War II. Eisenhower has long been reluctant to grant US citizenship to the president, but the program should involve Nazi-era German scientists in US space.
On October 4, 1957, the successful launch of the first satellite, Sputnik-1, came as a shock to the American political leadership as it became clear that the Soviets were leading the way in space racing. As a result, Eisenhower abandoned his previous reluctance and decided to involve Werner von Brand and his fellow scientists in the US space program.
In 1958, the U.S. The president signed an order to establish NASA, the space agency, which transferred the missile development center from the military to the newly created space agency. Former S.S. Major Werner von Brown has been appointed head of NASA’s newly established Marshall Space Flight Center. Van Fran and his colleagues did a lot to correct the evils against the Soviets.
Fran’s development team created the Jupiter-C launcher,
It launched the first American satellite, Explorer-1, into orbit on January 31, 1958.
But Van Braun and colleagues are also proud to have built the Redstone Mercury launch vehicle, which took the first American astronaut, Alan Shebert, into suburban space travel three weeks after Yuri Gagarin’s successful mission on May 5, 1961.
Head to the moon!
In his famous speech after the Alan Shepard spacecraft, President John F. Kennedy announced that the United States would send man to the moon by the end of the decade, when the world-famous architect Werner von Fran had immortal qualifications.
Within a few years, Van Braun and colleagues had developed a large and powerful Saturn missile vehicle family that helped them achieve complete success during the Apollo program, which began in 1967. On July 16, 1969, astronauts Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins were first taken to the moon from Launch Station 39-A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. People.
The Apollo-11 landing unit, Eagle-Ferry, landed on the plain of the moon, known as the Pacific Ocean, on July 20, 1969.
Moon travel fulfills mankind’s great dream. The missile was the Saturn-V, which brought American astronauts to the surface of our celestial body. The chief architect, Wenger von Braun, received the same celebration as the astronauts orbiting the moon.
As a culmination of his success, Werner von Braun was appointed Deputy Director of NASA in February 1970, and later worked at NASA’s Space Center in Washington, DC.
To guide the strategic planning of the space agency.
He resigned permanently in 1972 and became chairman of Fairchild Industries of Germontown, a Maryland-based aircraft manufacturer.
Werner von Braun, a former Hitler missile engineer who brought the United States to the moon, died on June 16, 1977 in Alexandria, Virginia.